4 Hybrid tactics, which include cyber-attacks, disinformation and economic interference, are increasingly used against NATO and EU member countries. In the last decade, some of the most important military forces and coalitions in the world, including the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), have attempted to address and counter so-called hybrid threats. Introduction Iranian and Russian versions of “hybrid” or “non-linear” warfare in Iraq and eastern Ukraine have had much in common. 3 Part of the conceptual confusion stems from the fact that there is no standard, commonly-accepted definition of hybrid warfare. The Potential for Russian Hybrid Aggression. The period of the Vietnam War from 1962 to 1968 would fit the definition of hybrid war until the Tet Offensive in 1968 when the Viet Cong ceased to exist as a serious military threat. In modern hybrid warfare, the success results for the initiating actor fall to 40% with two ongoing stalemates, but the initiator has less that a coin toss of a chance for a decisive early victory. Hybrid warfare — also known as grey zone conflict or low-intensity conflict — is a reality, and the U.S. military must be ready to confront and deter it, a senior intelligence officer said. The term hybrid threat refers to an action conducted by state or non-state actors, whose goal is to undermine or harm a target by combining overt and covert military and non-military means. The speed, scale and intensity of hybrid threats have increased in recent years. Key Characteristics of Russian Hybrid Warfare Russian hybrid warfare has at least three main characteristics. This sends a strong signal that the Alliance is improving both its political and military responsiveness and its ability to deploy appropriate forces to the right place at the right time. ple, defines hybrid warfare as conflict involving a combination of conventional military forces and irregulars (guerrillas, insurgents, and terrorists), which could include both state and non-state actors, aimed at achieving a common political purpose. The Warsaw Summit took place almost two years after the Wales Summit, at which NATO recognised that international law applies to cyberspace and that cyber defence is part of NATO’s core task of collective defence. The hybrid warfare is an unstructured form of war, used by States, NATO Secretary General's Annual Report 2019 NATO (19 March 2020) See page 29. Hybrid warfare occupies the uncomfortable middle ground between conventional and unconventional warfare, mixing elements of both in the process. where a wide range of overt and covert military, Over the last few years, “hybrid warfare” has become firmly established in the Western security lexicon. . hybrid warfare, supplemented by the NATO hybrid warfare playbook, laying out who does what in dealing with complex security threat scenarios that combine militias, cyber-attacks, targeting of critical infrastructure, as well as types of assistance the alliance would provide should a member state come under outside pressure. “We must be on the hunt for the next great geopolitical disrupters like climate change, or the next technological advancement that changes the game completely,” he said. Deputy Secretary General Rose Gottemoeller welcomed European Commissioner for the Security Union Sir Julian King to NATO on Thursday (14 March 2019), for talks on how NATO and the EU can work more closely together to counter hybrid warfare. NATO and EU discuss defence against hybrid warfare. It will deter hybrid attacks on the Alliance and, if necessary, will defend Allies concerned. "When leaders meet tomorrow they will agree a plan for NATO's response to emerging and disruptive technology, recognising two new operational domains in space and cyber, and develop plans to confront and deter hybrid tactics," Wallace told an international audience of defense analysts and policymakers. In the words of one NATO/ACT official, the task is to “paint the face on the faceless enemy”3 and to develop the hybrid threat concept, as well as examine viable and effective strategies to meet hybrid threats. It uses a blend of military, economic, diplomatic, criminal, and informational means to achieve desired political goals. In addition, Centres of Excellence work alongside and contribute knowledge and expertise to the Alliance. As we shall soon discover, Hybrid Warfare (HW) has much older origins than would first be assumed. Over the last few years, “hybrid warfare” has become firmly established in the Western security lexicon. Hybrid Warfare is Under the Threshold of Article 5 . British military doctrine, in contrast, follows Huber’s definition, and captures hybrid warfare as an aspect of irregu - lar warfare. What is new about attacks seen in recent years is their speed, scale and intensity, facilitated by rapid technological change and global interconnectivity. ... What distinguishes this definition of hybrid warfare from those discussed earlier is the emphasis on non-military methods of conflict and, in particular, Confusion and disorder ensue when weaponize… Hybrid Warfare as a Strategy. The term hybrid warfare has no consistent definition but generally refers to deniable and covert actions, supported by the threat or use of conventional and/or nuclear forces, to … What does hybrid warfare mean? As part of their increasingly closer cooperation, NATO and the EU have stepped up their cooperation on dealing with hybrid threats, with a special focus on countering cyber attacks. The Alliance has developed a strategy on its role in countering hybrid warfare to help address these threats. Hybrid methods of warfare, such as propaganda, deception, sabotage and other non-military tactics have long been used to destabilise adversaries. a rather new threat definition and its (temporary) inclusion in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s (NATO) new comprehensive defence approach with a reflection on the last Swedish experiment. The first definition of hybrid warfare is given by Hoffman. Hybrid wars are, broadly defined, conflicts involving one or more nonstate actors that nevertheless possess the attributes of a state’s military. Proxy warfare refers to when states influence conflicts without placing their own forces on the ground. Finally, the prospect of both challenges occurring in parallel is considered. Ukraine sees two paths for joining NATO. Part 1 – ‘Hybrid warfare’ and ‘hybrid threats’ are After the U.S.-led military intervention in Iraq in 2003, Iran hoped to check the Hybrid war strategies are always underway, although at certain moments they may become more acute and intense or cross over into conventional combat operations. “Future Warfare: The Rise of Hybrid Wars.” Hybrid threats combine military and non-military as well as covert and overt means, including disinformation, cyber attacks, economic pressure, deployment of irregular armed groups and use of regular forces. Address: 11b Kalnciema str. This includes exercising of decision–making processes and joint military and non-military responses in cooperation with other actors. 2. The main objective of the analysis is the study of NATO, The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, in its approach to hybrid warfare, as defined by Frank G. Hoffman in “Hybrid Warfare and Challenges”. While there is still no unanimously agreed-upon definition of ‘Hybrid Warfare’, the MC considered using the terminology shown in Figure 1. Hybrid Warfare : Fighting Complex Opponents from the Ancient World to the Present by Murray, Williamson & Mansoor, Peter R. The first definition of hybrid warfare is given by Hoffman. Being prepared to prevent, counter and respond to hybrid attacks, whether by state or non-state actors, is a top priority for NATO. WWE star tells how Marine Corps service helped her succeed, Money Minute: Student loan repayment and consolidation, Money Minute: Sending cash by mobile apps — convenient, but be careful, https://www.defensenews.com © 2021 Sightline Media Group, NATO’s London meetings are off to a rocky start, The top stories to follow in 2021 - Defense News Weekly, 1.4.21. Secondly, it discusses the use of ‘cyber’ in the context of ‘hybrid threats’ before it, thirdly, addresses some implications for 3.1. U.S. President Donald Trump landed in London, prepared to decry French President Emmanuel Macron's description of NATO as brain dead. . The concept features prominently in NATO and EU policy instruments and has informed the United States’ National Security Strategy adopted in December 2017. There is a perception that hybrid warfare is conducted under the threshold of international law, such as Article 51 of UN Charter and Article 5 of NATO, even though the concept does not postulate such a specific understanding. Axel Hagelstam of the Finnish Mission to NATO and Kirsti Narinen of the Centre explain. NATO has a strategy on its role in countering hybrid warfare and stands ready to defend the Alliance and all Allies against any threat, whether conventional or hybrid. The West’s preoccupation with the Gerasimov doctrine and Russia’s hybrid warfare also obscures the role of Russia’s military power in its foreign and national security policies. NATO continues to strengthen its cooperation and coordination with such partners as Finland, Sweden, Ukraine and the European Union (EU) to counter hybrid threats and enhance resilience. Wallace stayed away from responding to French President Emmanuel Macrons controversial view that the alliance was “brain dead," but he, like others in NATO, accept the need for continuing change. Hybrid warfare has been in the limelight for more than a decade within the Western strategic discourse. One possible definition of hybrid warfare proposed by NATO is war where the objective is achieved by integrating military, paramilitary and civilian measures, trying to influence policymakers and decision-makers. The same issue … To be prepared, NATO continuously gathers, shares and assesses information in order to detect and attribute any ongoing hybrid activity. While ‘hybrid warfare’ is a term very present in top policy-makers’ soundbites, among the staff and at national levels within NATO, the term is dismissed and consciously avoided. Inauguration of Hybrid CoE with NATO Secretary General and EUHR Mogherini - Q&A, NATO Secretary General press point at inauguration of Hybrid CoE, Inauguration of the European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats, NATO Deputy Secretary General on countering hybrid threats, 15 FEB 2018, 1/2, Statement on the implementation of the Joint Declaration signed by the President of the European Council, the President of the European Commission, and the Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 2018 Brussels Summit Declaration (para. The hybrid analysis branch provides decision-makers with improved awareness on possible hybrid threats. If the new threat is so complex, political, and subtle, shouldn’t the response be the same? NATO and the European Union (EU) are working on strategies to strengthen defensive capabilities and prevent hybrid attacks. Rather than develop strategies based on ‘hybrid’ challenges (an elusive and catch-all term), I … author and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the NATO Defense College or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Trump wants NATO to be more involved in the Middle East. 72), Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Centre (EADRCC), NATO Public Diplomacy Division’s Co-Sponsorship Grants. ‘hybrid warfare’ and ‘hybrid threats’ to provide further clarity. . Some $400 billion will be spent on defense investment by European nations and Canada by 2024, but more needs to be done, he said. While neither the European Union (EU) nor the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation ( NATO) appear to have a clear definition of this term, both organisations are taking steps to ‘counter NATO will ensure that the Alliance and Allies are sufficiently prepared to counter hybrid attacks in whatever form they may materialise. Venues for future: proposed measures for improving the ability of states to face hybrid warfare 17 6. Hybrid threats are dealt with more prominently in the Warsaw Summit Communiqué than in the Wales Summit Declaration, and they are now directly linked to cyber threats (paras 71, 72 and 135). Hybrid warfare can be used to describe the flexible and complex dynamics of the battlespace requiring a highly adaptable and resilient respo It continues to increase the readiness and preparedness of its forces, and has strengthened its decision-making process and its command structure as part of its deterrence and defence posture. 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