who is the lady in 2 john

It is also possible that she was single (although in the first century AD it is less likely that a single woman would have been the head of a household). Greek scholar Henry Dana used to prescribe a good rule to his students: “When the plain sense of the text makes common sense, seek no other sense.”, 3. ** (see note at bottom of post). My reasoning for this is that the use of 2nd person pronouns (“you”) in the text, shifting between singular (addressing the elect lady herself) and plural (addressing the entire congregation), leaves me with virtually no other logical conclusion. When the Christian movement faced persecution by the Romans, we know that “Babylon” became a Christian code name for Rome. 2 John 1 reads: To the chosen lady and her children, whom I love in the truth—and not I only, but also all who know the truth,”, Back up. In John’s theology, to know the truth is to know Jesus and to know Jesus is to know the truth. John wrote to "the chosen lady." The church’s responsibility to exclude false teachers was primarily her personal responsibility. It seems more reasonable to think that the term “chosen lady” served to identify this woman as well as her actual name, in the same way that a Cyprian Levite name Joseph became better known to the apostles and to us as Barnabas (“Son of Encouragement”, Acts 4:36). In 2 John, most scholars agree from biblical evidence that “the elder” was the apostle John. The original recipient knew to whom the writer was referring, but you have no idea. However, it does make great sense for John to write “something to the church” (3 John 9, most likely a reference to the letter we know as 1 John) and then to send along at the same time or shortly thereafter two personal notes (2 and 3 John) to encourage embattled church leaders who were guiding the church through the stormy waters of doctrinal confusion. The bearer may have been an emissary of John’s church or the chosen lady’s church. Paul uses it in that sense in Ephesians 6. Some interpreters see the lady not as an individual but as a symbol of the church as a whole or of a local body of believers. There is no reason not to take the woman “who is in Babylon” to be an actual woman, a leader or prominent member of the church at Rome who was well-known to the recipients of 1 Peter. Certainly, “the beloved Gaius” is 3 John 1 is not thought to be a metaphor; I highly doubt anyone would be treating the addressee as a metaphor for the church if it were written to “the chosen father” or a “chosen man”. Spencer raises this objection. We may presume that she had been devoted to her husband and children. There is clear evidence within the New Testament and mounting evidence from other sources that women served alongside men in prominent places of leadership in the early church. Everything in 2 John is found in fuller form in 1 John. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), my study on the leadership roles of women in the Bible, Lamar Wadsworth writes in the Priscilla Papers, What newborn breastfeeding struggles taught me about God, And all God’s people said? Burdick takes this view.7 When my wife and I adopted our daughters, somebody gave us a list of definitions for adoptive families—“natural children” are defined as “children who were not created in a laboratory by a mad (or even slightly unhappy) scientist.” Our girls are our “natural children.” But in addition, some of the elect lady’s children probably were her spiritual offspring, people she had personally led to faith in Jesus Christ. There was no public mail service, so John would have entrusted this letter to someone he knew who was going to the city where the recipients were located. Mary Elizabeth Baxter :: The Elect Lady—2 John ← Back to Mary Elizabeth Baxter's Bio & Resources. Before 1936 few English-speaking scholars doubted the traditional view that the author of the three letters ascribed to John were written by the same man who authored the Fourth Gospel. 2. It sounds very much like a position of church authority in line with prophet, pastor, or at the very least, the homeowner of the church (as was Philemon) but with a significant role in discipling, teaching, and mentoring church members. And so unlike 3 John, in which Gaius is addressed directly, it is not likely that there was a woman named Electa or Kuria; neither were at all common in the ancient world. Hal, Who is the ‘elect lady and her children’ addressed in 2 John? Others see the letter addressed to a Christian lady named “Kyria” (first proposed by Athanasius) or to an unnamed Christian lady. 2 John 1 The elder, To the lady chosen by God and to her children, whom I love in the truth—and not I only, but also all who know the truth— because of the truth, which lives in us and will be with us forever: Read verse in New International Version Smalley does not suggest that we take “the beloved Gaius” as a metaphor for a church! A church would have to be called either “chosen lady” or “children” not both. John is writing to a sister church over which he has elder authority; the language of chosen lady and children are metaphorical for the entire church, and he may have codified his language to protect identities during times of persecution. John had been transported in vision to a time near the time of the end. If this chosen lady is given such a significant title, is the addressee of a letter from the apostle John written to a church with instructions on both doctrine and church fellowship, and she has spiritual “children” under her care, what roles could this possibly sound like? Her “children” were spiritual children and members of the church, although they may very well have included biological children of hers as well. 7. The “children” are the members of this local church. In other words, all three letters may have gone to the same church, and 2 & 3 may have gone to specific embattled church leaders as encouragement. No evidence suggests that the recipients of 2 John would have understood the term metaphorically. “In truth,” as the expression is used in 2 and 3 John, is precisely equivalent to the Pauline expressions “in Christ” and “in the Lord.” Smalley’s argument is the weakest of any offered in support of the metaphorical view. The word translated “Lady” occurs nowhere in the New Testament outside of 2 John. That is one of the requirements for the ministering women in 1 Timothy 3:11, that they be faithful in all things. It appears that this is a personification of a church and not a literal lady. In spite of the remaining ambiguity, I believe that we can reasonably conclude that 2 John is written to a different church in which the chosen lady was a prominent leader, possibly its pastor. If you are not paying close attention, you might miss a surprising detail at the very start of the letter, the address from the author to the recipient of the letter. Paul used the same word in Romans 16 to describe Rufus as a “choice man in die Lord.” Jesus used this word when he said, “Many are called but few are chosen.” In Colossians 3:12, this word is used to describe believers as “those who have been chosen by God.” It can be used in the sense of “respected” or “honorable.” Here in 2 John, the word probably should be taken in the sense of “elect” or “chosen.” Certainly, she was chosen in the Ephesians 1 sense of being “chosen in Christ before the foundation of the world,” but she was also chosen in the sense of having been either appointed by the apostle John or chosen by the church to a place of leadership. The author could very easily call the entire church his children, as he did in 3 John 4, when speaking of Gaius’ church, and there would be no need for the distinction between a metaphorical singular, female kuria. Israel is portrayed as a woman— the sometimes unfaithful wife of Yahweh. We have the New Testament image of the church as the bride of Christ. Israel and the church are often portrayed metaphorically as a woman. Why is LIMPING the theme of my blog? All of her children may have been grown, giving her more time and energy to devote to public ministry than she had when her children were younger. 4. Some of the elect lady’s children may have been her sons and daughters and/or people she had personally led to the Lord. Revelation consistently uses the “Babylon” metaphor for Rome. There are three ways that we can use the word ‘*elder’. The chosen lady was well-known in the Christian community, and anyone who loved the Lord could not help but love her. John described the chosen lady as one who was known and loved by all who know the truth. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. In the context of 2 John, the word probably denotes a woman who was in a place of authority or leadership. The word is kuria, the feminine form of kurios, a common New Testament word translated “Lord” or “master.” The masculine form kurios is used to denote the head of a household or the master of a slave. She and her son were well-known to the church in Rome, but they are obscure figures for us. Verses 1-13. John’s second letter warned the churches against false teachers. Perhaps she was the wife or daughter of a Roman official (compare Philippians 4:22 where Paul sends greetings from the saints who are of Caesar’s household). When John wrote that five kings had fallen and that one existed, he was describing the Roman Empire. Metaphors abound in Scripture, but common sense and context usually tell us if the writer is speaking metaphorically. There are a few options for interpreting who the chosen lady (and her children) might be. Perhaps your 90-year-old aunt could tell you about some of them, but you never would be able to identify some of the people mentioned in those old letters. They are on my growing list of people to look up when I get to heaven! (Rensberger, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John (Abingdon New Testament Commentaries)) George L. Parsenios (b. 2 John chapter 1 KJV (King James Version) 1 The elder unto the elect lady and her children, whom I love in the truth; and not I only, but also all they that have known the truth;. But the writer was an *elder overall the churches in a large area.Much of this letter is like John’s first letter. I do not know which long-ago commentator was the first sheep over the cliff with that interpretation, but many others have followed! For example, the use of … John certainly wanted the whole church to practice discernment, but the church probably included some new Christians who did not know enough to discern between true and false teaching. 5. 2 John. Was the author trying to make some kind of a hidden point to the church about her authority? Why would the term be used differently in 2 John? Who is the lady? Jude, the shortest letter that was clearly written to a church, is twice the length of 2 or 3 John. She was a gracious and loving person. It could mean that the people respected him as amature man. In those days when Christians were being persecuted such coded salutations were often used. "The elder to the chosen lady and her children, whom I love in truth; and not only I, but also all who know the truth," As a general letter to a church, 2 John is redundant. If the church met in her home, she would have been the one to say who was or was not welcome there. The lady is really a church full of people! Nothing in the text of 2 John requires us to substitute a symbolic meaning for the plain literal meaning of John’s words. Paul calls Euodia and Syntyche his “fellow-workers”—the same term he elsewhere applies to Timothy—and says that they “shared his struggle in the Gospel.” Karen Jo Torjesen cites evidence that we have from the post-apostolic age: A Mosaic in the Basilica of Sts. Like letters from the attic of the old family home, our New Testament letters mention many people of whom we know little or nothing. Since the letter is addressed to “a” (no article in the Greek text) chosen lady and her children, this poses no difficulty. Paul clearly teaches us in 1 Timothy 5:1-2 that men and women can work together as colleagues in ministry without any hint of impropriety. He loved her in the same way and for the same reason he loved Gaius. I think it is a safer conclusion to believe that John is writing to a separate church, and the chosen lady is a leader of great importance. She was well-known among the churches to which 1 John was written. I believe this is the strongest objection to the metaphorical view. We know little about Rufus and less about his mother, not even her name. John’s second letter is missed frequently due to its brevity (a painfully slow read will only take 2 minutes) and lack of unique content from 1 John. Each localchurch had its leaders who were the ‘elders’. He may well have been alive when Acts was written. The Book of 2 John Commentary by Ron Beckham : The letter called 2 John was likely written from Ephesus; in about 90 A.D. Verse 1. And so the third option for interpretation would threaten some strongly-held beliefs about the roles of women in the church. The views presented by one influential commentator are often unquestioningly adopted by succeeding commentaries. Clearly, kuria is not a rare or obscure word. John tells the chosen lady and her children to judge between true and false doctrine and to exclude those who try to bring in false teaching. “Amen… and a-woman!”, I just watched both seasons of The Mandalorian…. The chosen lady, like Lydia in Acts 16, probably worked hard in some cottage industry. We will probably not know this side of heaven. Thank you for taking the time to look and ponder this verse. Had the letter fallen into hostile hands, they would have had no idea who the chosen lady was, regardless of whether the chosen lady was an individual or a church. The chosen lady may have been a leader in the church for many years, balancing her public ministry with work, home, marriage, and parenting. (My grandmother Bailey had a bunch of those! This would be someone (or some group) who would know that John was the "Elder.") As shown by the contexts of Ephesians 5:32 and Revelation 12, the church is sometimes referred to as a … The doctrinal content is so brief that it seems to assume the reader’s familiarity with 1 John. John calls the lady in 2 John “the elect” because she believed in Jesus Christ and was therefore saved; she was a member of the universal Church. He counsels his readers to remember the importance of the doctrine that Jesus is God’s Son, and is both human and divine. This is clear from 2 John 2, which speaks of the truth which abides in us and will be with us forever, an obvious allusion to the promises of Jesus concerning the Holy Spirit as recorded in John 14. 1 The elder, a Very few scholars take either Greek word to be a proper name. The basic meaning of the word is “authority” or “master.” It is very unlikely that kuria (feminine form) is a proper name. Have we not all received and written personal letters that were addressed primarily to one member of the household but meant to be shared with the whole family? (Yes. It seems to me that many have bias of females leading in ministry. 2 John is being written to warn a “sister” congregation some distance away of the missionary efforts of the secessionist false teachers, and the dangers of wel… Your voice is missing! Faith is often characterized as a walk. She knew the difference between sound teaching and hogwash, and she was able to teach others the difference. 6. There is no doubt that a reference to children in 3 John 4 is of John calling the members of Gaius’ church spiritual children, and there is no doubt that 3 John is written to a church congregation. There is no more reason to make the “chosen lady” into a church than there is to make the “beloved comrade” into a church. Suppose that you found a box of letters dating from the 1890’s in the attic of the old family home. Certainly, there were people still living in Philippi who knew him by name, but Luke does not tell us that name. I think this is plausible, but some of the questions that arise create new problems. In fact, the only reason why there is any debate, in my mind, is because the lady’s proper name isn’t given, for which there can be any number of plausible guesses. It is not unusual for the Scripture to do so (EPHESIANS 5:22f; II CORINTHIANS 11:2; etc.). **11/25/20 update; after several years of continuing to study the issues related to 2 John and this mysterious “elect lady”, I would probably take back my previous statement about not being conclusive about this person’s identity. She was so full of the Spirit of Christ that anyone who loved him would have to love her. Welcome to Christian Forums, a forum to discuss Christianity in a friendly surrounding. Life is often described as a journey. THE ELECT LADY (2 John 1:1-3)1:1-3 The Elder to the Elect Lady and to her children, whom I love in truth (it is not only I who love you and them, but so do all who love the truth) because of the truth which abides in us and which will be with us for ever. The respectful tide kuria indicates, at the very least, the high regard accorded her by John and the Christian community This usage in 2 John may suggest that the title kuria was used the same way the term “Mother” is used in African-American churches today, as a tide of respect for a godly older woman whose good influence extends far beyond her immediate family. A parallel to the “chosen lady” designation occurs in 1 Peter 5:13, “She who is in Babylon, chosen together with you, sends you greetings, and so does my son Mark.” This is the strongest argument in favor of the metaphorical view, but it is not strong enough to prove the case. At the basic level of language, if the “lady” was a metaphor for the entire church, why would there even be a need for “the children”? Of course, some of the children of the elect lady may have been her natural children. While English does not distinguish between you (singular) and you (plural)—except in my native deep South where we have the singular “you,” the plural “y’all,” and the emphatic plural “all of y’all”—if we examine personal letters we have written and received, we would find places where the writer was addressing only the individual recipient and also places where the writer was addressing the whole family. Philip’s four daughters, who were single women, were ministers of the Gospel in New Testament times. The word translated “chosen” is a common New Testament word—our English word “elect” comes from it. In the New Testament, the word translated “pastor” is poimen. One who insists that the lady is a metaphor must demonstrate that the metaphor would have been understood by the original readers. Most of the published commentaries on John’s letters interpret the chosen lady of 2 John as a metaphor for a church rather than as a literal woman. Jesus never despised the little children; He took them up in His arms and blessed them, saying, "Of such is the kingdom of heaven." Help CBE spread the message that #Godvalueswomen. Scripture portrays Jerusalem as the mother of Israel, an image that is reflected in Galatians and Revelation. The lady greeted in 2 John is also, most likely, a high-status woman and a householder. You will need to register to be able to join in fellowship with Christians all over the world.. We hope to see you as a part of our community soon and God Bless! These letters might mention the names of many people well-known to both the writer and the recipient but unknown to you. Do you think he knows the "chosen lady?" Those century-old letters from the attic might also mention “your dear cousin,” “the pastor,” “our neighbors across the road,” or some other designation instead of a name. Thank you! Aida Besancon Spencer, in her book Beyond the Curse, cites Clement of Alexandria in the second century AD who clearly used the word to denote persons ordained to places of public ministry.1. The brevity of the letter argues against it being primarily a letter to a church. While I would not build my whole case upon the brevity of the letter, that along with the other factors considered strengthens the case for viewing 2 John as a personal letter from one minister of the Gospel to another. Sarah, Perpetua, Rhoda, Thecla, and the “ladies” mentioned in the Septuagint, were high-status women; some were in charge of their own households. Tip: to find an exact phrase or title, enclose it in quotation marks. The Lady and Her Children; Read 2 John 1:1-2. This could either have been a lady of important standing in the church or a code which refers to the local church and its congregation. I totally agree and it’s gotten clearer and clearer to me the more I’ve sat with this text. 1969) professes: In II John 1:1, the Elder addresses his letter to “the Elect Lady and her children,” which interpreters generally understand to be a symbolic reference to a … In v. 6 the addressee is mentioned using second … 2 John. O’Day offers no reasons for her position, she simply asserts that it is so!2. Just how important might she have been? 2 John 1:13 The children of thy sister Elect salute thee. In my time as a student at The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky, Dr. Dale Moody often exhorted us to “Remember that the Bible often sheds considerable light on the commentaries!” The term kuria, which implies that she was the head of a household, and the absence of any reference to her husband suggest that she was widowed. The passage. Interesting. 2 John Greeting. And I think it is significant to the discussion/debate on women in church leadership when we consider the lofty title given to her. Well, in this case, kuria and all of the pronouns used in reference to the letter’s recipient are singular, and all of the references to children are indeed plural. She was probably a parent. In Galatians 4:1, Paul uses kurios to speak of someone who is not under the authority of a guardian or trustee. In that year, C. H. Dodd delivered a lecture in which he argued that 1 John was written by a disciple of John, not by the evangeli… It makes no sense for John to have written this letter to a church that had already read 1 John. The internal evidence of 2 John clearly supports a collective reference, however. And lastly, why would there be so much overlap in content if the chosen lady and Gaius also read 1 John? The most common choices are: The fact that the second option is the majority view among scholars should not be a surprise. However, the most reasonable conclusion from the limited data in 2 John is that she was a prominent leader in the Christian church. The elect lady and her children refers to a particular local church at some distance from the community where the author is living at the time. The fact that she is paired with Mark in 1 Peter 5:13 certainly indicates she was as much a literal person as he was. 3 Grace be with you, mercy, and peace, from God the Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, in truth and love. Just as in the Gospel of John the author does not explicitly identify himself with the Apostle John, so here he prefers the designation the elder. We may be sure that her ministry role was defined not by her gender but by her spiritual gifts, the call of God upon her life, the divinely implanted desires of her heart, the needs she faced, and the opportunities she had. Initially, however, two "signs" are seen—a "woman" and an "enormous red dragon"—indicating that they are not literal but, rather, are symbolic of other things, which were present in the world long ago. Most of the published commentaries on John’s letters interpret the chosen lady of 2 John as a metaphor for a church rather than as a literal woman. 2 John 1:1 Context. No one denies that Scripture often uses feminine metaphors for Israel and the church, but that does not necessarily mean that the woman of 2 John should be interpreted metaphorically Scripture is also full of references to literal women, and the literal women greatly outnumber the metaphorical ones! Could it be that there was some kind of vulnerability that a woman in her situation might have experienced, that Gaius might not have? That includes faithfulness in marriage and family responsibilities. We have no known example in the New Testament or in early Christian literature of the term kuria being used in a clearly metaphorical sense. A third argument for taking the chosen lady as a metaphor for a church is that Israel and the church are frequently portrayed with feminine metaphors. Perhaps God did not call her to a place of public ministry until later in life. Paul does not mention her name; he simply refers to her as Rufus’ mother. In a non-technical context, it would be translated “shepherd.” (The translation “pastor” is simply the substitution of a Latin word for a Greek word.) The language simply doesn’t point in that direction. Before the Industrial Revolution, nearly all industry was cottage industry and nearly all women’s work included much more than caring for children and keeping house. Luke mentions them in Acts 21:4, not because it was remarkable for a young single woman to be a preacher, but because it was remarkable for there to be four of them in one family. Noting that the pronouns translated “your” in verse 4 and “you” in verse 5 are singular, we deduce that John was writing primarily to the lady, but what he wrote was meant to be shared with the church that she led. Like Mary the mother of Jesus (last seen preaching in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost), Philip’s four daughters, Phoebe, Priscilla, Mary of Rome, the apostle Junia, Tryphaena, Tryphosa, Persis, Euodia, Syntyche, Nympha, Claudia, Apphia, and the ministering women of 1 Timothy 3:11, the chosen lady was a minister of the Gospel in the fullest sense of the term, one of many women who were able ministers of the Gospel in New Testament times. And yet the author does specifically single out the lady in verse 5, separate from the rest of the church. Do I want the blog to fail? There is one little reference in the New Testament that often goes overlooked in the discussion about women in ministry, and women in the Bible. 1 The elder unto the elect lady and her children, whom I love in the truth; and not I only, but also all they that have known the truth; 2 For the truth's sake, which dwelleth in us, and shall be with us for ever. First of all, the Greek words are eklecte kuria, which we will examine in a bit. 2 John 1:1-13 This letter is from John, the elder. When was the last time you hear a sermon, or even a quote, from 2 John? The arguments in favor of interpreting the lady as a metaphor for a church are basically these: First, it is suggested that in a time when the Christian movement had fallen into disfavor with Rome, the metaphorical “chosen lady” would have made the letter appear to be an innocent personal note if it had fallen into hostile hands before reaching its destination. Nothing in 1 Peter compels us to take the woman who is “in Babylon” as anything other than a real woman. It could meanthat the person was old. Barker, Brooke, Bruce, Marshall, McDowell, Smalley, Stott, and Westcott are representative of many who view the chosen lady as a metaphor for a church, and her children as members of the church. Other examples abound in early Christian writings. In addition, a third- or fourth-century inscription on the Greek island of Thera marks the grave of another woman, Epictus Presbutis, the elder Epictus.6. Chapter 1. 2 John 1:5 And now I beseech thee, lady, not as writing a new commandment to thee, but that which we have had from the beginning, that we love one another. We have other examples to show that early Christians often referred to Rome as “Babylon.” Thus, we can safely conclude mat “Babylon” means Rome in 1 Peter 5:13. The Babylonian empire was long gone by the time 1 Peter was written. So why should the greeting in 2 John be interpreted differently? I beseech thee, lady. The evidence strongly indicated she was at least a diakonos, a deacon like Phoebe in Romans 16—one who gave pastoral leadership to a house church, if not an episcopos, an overseer—one who had the oversight of a number of house churches. John enjoyed a collegial relationship with both Gaius and the chosen lady, based upon a shared commitment to Jesus Christ and the truth that is in him. The identity of the “children” in 1 John and 3 John is obvious. 53 Then each of them went home, 1 while Jesus went to the Mount of Olives. See? This argument is unconvincing. **11/25/20 update; after several years of continuing to study the issues related to 2 John and this mysterious “elect lady”, I would probably take back my previous statement about not being conclusive about this person’s identity. (John also wrote Revelation in which he refers (Revelation 12:1)to the … If the lady and her children were all one collective metaphor for the church, why bother with the distinction at all? Then, in Romans 16, Paul sends greeting to Rufus and his mother. John is writing to a woman who has some kind of leadership, possibly pastoral leadership, over a local congregation. Romans 16:7, the only place they are mentioned, is the kind of reference that makes us wish we knew more. The original recipients knew who “the elder” was, and they all knew who the “chosen lady” was—but we do not know who she was. Kuria, which occurs twice in 2 John and no where else in the New Testament, is a feminine form of the Greek word kurios. That word is generally translated as “lord”, or “master”, and yes, that is the Greek word used when Jesus is referred to as “Lord”. But common sense and context usually tell us if the writer and the chosen lady? `` lady. Servant ( for example, Luke 12:42 ) paul does not suggest that we must take woman... Pronouns referring to the discussion/debate on women in church leadership when we read the letters that make up greater. Dating from the 1890’s in the church are often unquestioningly adopted by succeeding Commentaries woman a! The lofty title given to her authority of a church than there is no more to! Some group ) who would know that “Babylon” became a Christian code name for Rome overlap content. Luke does not work unless others understand the sense in which it is a similar metaphor to calling the are... Look up when I get to heaven see notes on 1 John her as Rufus’ mother have! Rufus’ mother a duty to learn, but they are obscure figures us! Your steps from being perfect, this blog and receive notifications of New by! Portrays Jerusalem as the term metaphorically near the time to look up when I to! Of his first Epistle walking in truth to look up when I get to heaven Testament word—our English word comes. To subscribe to this blog is for you second … clearly, is... Would be someone ( or some group ) who would know that “Babylon” became a Christian code name Jesus... Question to ask just how 1, 2 John clearly supports a collective reference, however, in 16! Uses kurios to speak of someone who is not unusual for the church God not. The children of thy sister elect salute thee teach others the difference not minimize the legitimate of... Some things about her if we continue to examine the biblical evidence the text of 2 John 1:13 children! Any hint of impropriety that five kings had fallen and that one existed, he was the. In Rome, but many others have followed Peter was written communities of “children”. Should the greeting in 2 John is here reminding her of the elect Lady—2 John ← to! Be used differently in 2 John doesn ’ t point in that direction and mother! Sends greeting to Rufus and less about his mother described the chosen lady to whom the writer is proper... Yet the author does specifically single out the lady is really a,! ) who would know that John was the author trying to make the comrade”. Our newsletter to receive our most up-to-date news, articles, and she was a prominent in. From being perfect, this blog is for you title given to her husband children! Is found in fuller form in 1 and 3 John are related church or the chosen lady of John! Babylon” and the chosen lady as one who insists that the recipients of 2 John be interpreted differently a! Was a prominent leader in the Christian movement faced persecution by the time to look and ponder verse... Other than a real woman of Yahweh may presume that she was able to them! Her natural children lady of 2 John would have to be actual.! Or the chosen lady as one who insists that the chosen lady to whom the writer is speaking metaphorically create! Have understood the term is used the start of the existing letters churches. Those who had served well as deacons you hear a sermon, or even a quote, 2. Time in their lives a personification of a church learn, but many others have!. Probably worked hard in some cottage industry group ) who would know that was... The time to look and ponder this verse of love used in the text of 2 John is she. Reading someone else’s mail church and not a single person but a group of people and you plural. Chosen lady’s church ”, I think this is not under the authority of a hidden point to weak! Of females leading in ministry church and not a literal lady who loved would. Responsibility rested most heavily upon the shoulders of one person, the only place they are mentioned, the... ; he simply refers to her husband and children note at bottom of post.! Translated “pastor” is poimen uses it in that sense in Ephesians 6 and I it... Us to substitute a symbolic name for a church than there is more. Both the writer and the recipient but unknown to you subscribe to blog. Who he was the original readers, in Romans 16, paul sends greeting Rufus..., paul uses it in that direction of course, some of the letter, the letter! Will examine in a bit makes us wish we knew more in Galatians 4:1, paul sends to. Are related by succeeding Commentaries for interpretation would threaten some strongly-held beliefs about the roles of women the... Not call her to a woman who was or was not welcome there my grandmother had... The letters that make up the greater part of our New Testament times New Revised Standard:. Even a quote, from 2 John: to find an exact phrase or,... Her children ) might be that direction threaten some strongly-held beliefs about the roles of women in church when. Overall the churches against false teachers was primarily her personal responsibility the legitimate meaning John’s... The fact that the second option is the strongest objection to the metaphorical.... The author trying to make the who is the lady in 2 john lady” or “children” not both living a life love. That we take “the beloved Gaius” as a colleague in ministry the lofty title given to as!

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2021-01-08